我们都知道关于太阳的一件事:它非常热。表面(我们可以看到的太阳的最外层“层”是10,340华氏度(F),核心(我们看不到)是2700华氏度。太阳的另一部分介于两者之间表面和我们:它是最外层的“大气层”,称为日冕。它比表面热300倍。太空中更远的东西怎么会更热?你会认为它实际上会从距离太阳更远的地方冷却下来。关于日冕如何变热的这个问题让太阳科学家们忙了很长时间,试图找到答案。人们曾经认为电晕逐渐加热,但加热的原因是个谜。太阳是通过一个叫做融合的过程从内部加热的。核心是核炉,将氢原子融合在一起,形成氦原子。该过程释放热量和光线,这些热量和光线穿过太阳层,直到它们从光球层中逸出。包括日冕在内的大气层位于其上方。它应该更酷,但事实并非如此。那么,什么可能加热日冕?一个答案是nanoflares。这些是我们发现从太阳喷发的大型太阳耀斑的小表兄弟。耀斑是来自太阳表面的突然闪光。它们释放出令人难以置信的能量和辐射。有时耀斑还伴随着大量释放来自太阳的过热等离子体称为日冕物质抛射。这些爆发可能导致地球和其他行星所谓的“太空天气”(如北极光和南极光的显示)。 Nanoflares是一种不同种类的太阳耀斑。首先,它们不断爆发,像无数小氢弹一样噼啪作响。其次,它们非常非常热,达到华氏1800万度。这比日冕更热,通常是几百万华氏度。把它们想象成一个非常热的汤,在炉子的表面上冒泡,使其上方的气氛变暖。对于纳米气泡,所有那些不断吹出微小爆炸(强度与10兆吨氢弹爆炸一样强大)的联合加热可能是为什么冠状球体如此热。

加拿大渥太华大学天文学Assignment代写:Nanoflares让太阳变得热烈

One thing we all know about the Sun: it’s incredibly hot. The surface (the outermost “layer” of the Sun that we can see) is 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit (F), and the core (which we can’t see) is 27 MILLION degrees F. There’s another part of the Sun that lies between the surface and us: it’s the outermost “atmosphere”, called the corona.It’s some 300 times hotter than the surface. How can something farther away and out in space be hotter? You would think it would actually be cooling off the farther away it gets from the Sun. This question of how the corona gets so hot has kept solar scientists busy for a long time, trying to find an answer. It was once assumed that the corona heated gradually, but the cause of the heating was a mystery. The Sun is heated from within by a process called fusion. The core is a nuclear furnace, fusing atoms of hydrogen together to make atoms of helium. The process releases heat and light, which travel through the Sun’s layers until they escape from the photosphere. The atmosphere, including the corona, lie above that. It should be cooler, but it’s not. So, what could possibly heat the corona? One answer is nanoflares. These are tiny cousins of the big solar flares that we detect erupting from the Sun. Flares are sudden flashes of brightness from the Sun’s surface. They release incredible amounts of energy and radiation. Sometimes flares are also accompanied by massive releases of superheated plasma from the Sun called coronal mass ejections. These outbursts can cause what’s called “space weather” (such as displays of northern and southern lights) at Earth and other planets. Nanoflares are a different breed of solar flare. First, they erupt constantly, crackling along like countless little hydrogen bombs. Second, they are very, very hot, getting up to 18 million degrees Fahrenheit. That’s hotter than the corona, which is usually a few million degrees F. Think of them as a very hot soup, bubbling along on the surface of a stove, warming the atmosphere above it. With nanoflares, the combined heating of all those constantly blowing tiny explosions (which are as powerful as 10-megaton hydrogen bomb explosions) is likely why the coronosphere is so hot.

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