伟大的游戏 – 也被称为Bolshaya Igra–是中世纪英国和俄罗斯帝国之间激烈的竞争,始于十九世纪,一直持续到1907年,英国试图影响或控制中亚的大部分地区以缓冲“皇冠上的宝石” “它的帝国:英属印度。与此同时,沙皇俄罗斯寻求扩大其领土和势力范围,以创建历史上最大的陆地帝国之一。俄罗斯人也很乐意将印度的控制权从英国夺走。随着英国巩固对印度的控制 – 包括现在的缅甸,巴基斯坦和孟加拉国 – 俄罗斯在其南部边界征服了中亚汗国和部落。两个帝国之间的前线最终贯穿阿富汗,西藏和波斯。英国勋爵Ellenborough于1830年1月12日开始了“伟大的游戏”,并制定了一条法令,建立了从印度到布哈拉的新贸易路线,利用土耳其,波斯和阿富汗作为对俄罗斯的缓冲,以防止其控制任何港口。波斯湾。与此同时,俄罗斯希望在阿富汗建立一个中立区,允许他们使用重要的贸易路线。这导致英国控制阿富汗,布哈拉和土耳其的一系列不成功的战争。英国人在四次战争中失败 – 第一次盎格鲁 – 撒克逊战争(1838年),第一次盎格鲁 – 锡克战争(1843年),第二次盎格鲁 – 锡克战争(1848年)和第二次英国 – 阿富汗战争(1878年) – 导致俄罗斯控制了包括布哈拉在内的几个汗国。虽然英国征服阿富汗的企图以羞辱告终,但这个独立国家仍然是俄罗斯和印度之间的缓冲区。在西藏,英国在1903年至1904年的Younghusband探险之后仅仅两年就建立了控制权,之后被秦中国取代。七年后,中国皇帝倒台,让西藏再次统治自己。大游戏正式结束于1907年的英俄公约,该公约将波斯划分为俄罗斯控制的北部地区,名义上独立的中心区域和英国控制的南部地区。 “公约”还规定了从波斯东部到阿富汗的两个帝国之间的边界线,并宣布阿富汗是英国的官方保护国。两个欧洲大国之间的关系继续紧张,直到它们在第一次世界大战中与中央大国结盟,尽管现在仍然存在对两个强国的敌意 – 特别是在2017年英国退出欧盟之后。 “伟大的游戏”归功于英国情报官亚瑟·康纳利(Arthur Conolly),并于1904年在鲁迪亚德·基普林(Rudyard Kipling)的书“金”(Kim)中得到推广,其中他提出了大国之间权力斗争的想法作为一种游戏。

加拿大戴尔豪西大学历史学Essay代写:什么是伟大游戏

The Great Game — also known as Bolshaya Igra — was an intense rivalry between the British and Russian Empires in Central Asia, beginning in the nineteenth century and continuing through 1907 wherein Britain sought to influence or control much of Central Asia to buffer the “crown jewel” of its empire: British India. Tsarist Russia, meanwhile, sought to expand its territory and sphere of influence, in order to create one of history’s largest land-based empires. The Russians would have been quite happy to wrest control of India away from Britain as well. As Britain solidified its hold on India — including what is now Myanmar, Pakistan and Bangladesh — Russia conquered Central Asian khanates and tribes on its southern borders. The front line between the two empires ended up running through Afghanistan, Tibet, and Persia. The British Lord Ellenborough started “The Great Game” on January 12, 1830, with an edict establishing a new trade route from India to Bukhara, using Turkey, Persia, and Afghanistan as a buffer against Russia to prevent it from controlling any ports on the Persian Gulf. Meanwhile, Russia wanted to establish a neutral zone in Afghanistan allowing for their use of crucial trade routes. This resulted in a series of unsuccessful wars for the British to control Afghanistan, Bukhara, and Turkey. The British lost at all four wars — the First Anglo-Saxon War (1838), the First Anglo-Sikh War (1843), the Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848) and the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878) — resulting in Russia taking control of several Khanates including Bukhara. Although Britain’s attempts to conquer Afghanistan ended in humiliation, the independent nation held as a buffer between Russia and India. In Tibet, Britain established control for just two years after the Younghusband Expedition of 1903 to 1904, before being displaced by Qin China. The Chinese emperor fell just seven years later, allowing Tibet to rule itself once more. The Great Game officially ended with the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, which divided Persia into a Russian-controlled northern zone, a nominally independent central zone, and a British-controlled southern zone. The Convention also specified a borderline between the two empires running from the eastern point of Persia to Afghanistan and declared Afghanistan an official protectorate of Britain. Relations between the two European powers continued to be strained until they allied against the Central Powers in World War I, though there still now exists hostility toward the two powerful nations — especially in the wake of Britain’s exit from the European Union in 2017. The term “Great Game” is attributed to British intelligence officer Arthur Conolly and was popularized by Rudyard Kipling in his book “Kim” from 1904, wherein he plays up the idea of power struggles between great nations as a game of sorts.

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