Ubuntu是一个来自Nguni语言的复杂单词,有几个定义,所有这些定义很难翻译成英语。然而,每个定义的核心是人与人之间存在或应该存在的联系。 Ubuntu作为与纳尔逊·曼德拉和大主教德斯蒙德·图图有关的人文主义哲学而闻名于非洲之外。关于名称的好奇心也可能来自它被用于名为Ubuntu的开源操作系统。 ubuntu的一个含义是正确的行为,但在这个意义上的正确性是由一个人与其他人的关系来定义的。 Ubuntu指的是对他人表现良好或以有利于社区的方式行事。这种行为可以像帮助有需要的陌生人一样简单,也可以是更复杂的与他人交往的方式。以这种方式行事的人有ubuntu。他或她是一个完整的人。对于一些人来说,ubuntu类似于灵魂力量 – 一种在人与人之间共享的实际形而上学联系,这有助于我们彼此联系。 Ubuntu将推动一个人走向无私的行为。撒哈拉以南非洲的许多文化和语言都有相关词汇,ubuntu这个词现在广为人知,并在南非以外的地方使用。在非殖民化时代,ubuntu越来越被描述为非洲人文主义哲学,Ubuntu在这个意义上是一种思考人类意义的方式,以及我们作为人类应该如何对待他人。 Desmond Tutu大主教着名地描述了ubuntu的意思是“我的人性被追赶,与你的人生有着千丝万缕的联系”.1在20世纪60年代和70年代初期,一些知识分子和民族主义者在他们认为政治非洲化时提到了ubuntu社会意味着更大的社区主义和社会主义意识。在20世纪90年代,人们开始越来越多地用恩古尼谚语来形容Ubuntu,这句谚语被翻译为“一个人是通过其他人的人”.2 Christian Gade推测,当他们摆脱种族隔离的分离时,联系就吸引了南非人.Ubuntu也提到需要宽恕与和解而不是报复。这是真相与和解委员会的基本概念,以及纳尔逊曼德拉和大主教德斯蒙德的着作图图提高了人们对非洲以外一词的认识。巴拉克·奥巴马总统在纳尔逊·曼德拉的纪念碑中提到了ubuntu。这是曼德拉体现并教给数百万人的一个概念。

新西兰奥克兰大学社会学Essay代写:种族隔离的终结

Ubuntu is a complex word from the Nguni language with several definitions, all of them difficult to translate into English. At the heart of each definition, though, is the connectedness that exists or should exist between people. Ubuntu is best known outside of Africa as a humanist philosophy associated with Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Curiosity about the name may also come from it being used for the open source operating system called Ubuntu. One meaning of ubuntu is correct behavior, but correct in this sense is defined by a person’s relations with other people. Ubuntu refers to behaving well towards others or acting in ways that benefit the community. Such acts could be as simple as helping a stranger in need, or much more complex ways of relating with others. A person who behaves in these ways has ubuntu. He or she is a full person. For some, ubuntu is something akin to a soul force – an actual metaphysical connection shared between people and which helps us connect to each other. Ubuntu will push one toward selfless acts. There are related words in many sub-Saharan African cultures and languages, and the word ubuntu is now widely known and used outside of South Africa. During the era of decolonization, ubuntu was increasingly described as an African, humanist philosophy, Ubuntu in this sense is a way of thinking about what it means to be human, and how we, as humans, should behave towards others. Archbishop Desmond Tutu famously described ubuntu as meaning ‘My humanity is caught up, is inextricably bound up, in what is yours'”.1 In the 1960s and early 70s, several intellectuals and nationalists referred to ubuntu when they argued that an Africanization of politics and society would mean a greater sense of communalism and socialism. In the 1990s, people began to describe Ubuntu increasingly in terms of the Nguni proverb translated as “a person is a person through other persons.”2 Christian Gade has speculated that the sense of connectedness appealed to South Africans as they turned away from the separation of apartheid. Ubuntu also referred to the need for forgiveness and reconciliation rather than vengeance. It was an underlying concept in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and the writings of Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu raised awareness of the term outside of Africa. President Barack Obama included mention of ubuntu in his memorial to Nelson Mandela, saying it was a concept that Mandela embodied and taught to millions.

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