环境科学是研究自然界的物理,化学和生物成分之间的相互作用。因此,它是一门多学科的科学:它涉及许多学科,如地质学,水文学,土壤科学,植物生理学和生态学。环境科学家可能接受过多个学科的培训;例如,地球化学家拥有地质学和化学方面的专业知识。大多数情况下,环境科学家工作的多学科性质来自他们与来自互补研究领域的其他科学家共同培养的合作。在一个废弃的炼油厂协调清理工作,标记为超级基金站点,确定污染问题的程度并制定恢复计划。预测全球气候变化和海平面上升对沿海湾系统的影响,并协助寻找解决方案,以限制对沿海湿地,海岸线财产和公共基础设施的损害。环境科学家很少只研究自然系统,而是通常努力解决因与环境相互作用而产生的问题。通常,环境科学家采用的基本方法首先是使用数据来检测问题并评估其程度。然后设计并实施该问题的解决方案。最后,进行监视以确定问题是否已得到修复。环境科学家可能参与的项目类型的一些例子包括:咨询施工团队,帮助他们尽量减少来自未来杂货店的污泥污染。为了评估现场的状况,动物种群的健康状况或流的质量,大多数科学方法需要大量的数据收集。然后需要用一套描述性统计数据来汇总该数据,然后用于验证是否支持特定假设。这种假设检验需要复杂的统计工具。训练有素的统计人员通常是大型研究团队的一部分,以协助复杂的统计模型。协助州政府车队的管理人员采取措施减少二氧化碳和其他温室气体排放。设计恢复计划,使橡树热带草原的种植面积处于适当的生态状态,以承载濒临灭绝的卡纳蓝蝴蝶及其寄主植物 – 蓝羽扇豆。环境科学家经常使用其他类型的模型。例如,水文模型有助于了解地下水流量和溢出污染物的扩散,而地理信息系统(GIS)中实施的空间模型将有助于跟踪偏远地区的森林砍伐和栖息地破碎化。无论是文学学士(BA)还是理学士(BS),环境科学的大学学位都可以带来广泛的专业角色。课程通常包括地球科学和生物课程,统计学和核心课程,教授环境领域的抽样和分析技术。学生通常完成室外取样练习以及实验室内部工作。通常选修课程为学生提供环境问题的适当背景,包括政治,经济,社会科学和历史。为环境科学事业做好充分的大学准备也可以走不同的道路。例如,化学,地质学或生物学学位可以提供坚实的教育基础,其次是环境科学的研究生学习。基础科学的好成绩,作为实习生或暑期技师的一些经验,以及积极的推荐信应该让有动力的学生进入硕士课程。环境科学是由各种各样的子领域的人们实践的。工程公司聘请环境科学家来评估未来项目地点的状况。咨询公司可以协助修复,这是一个过程,以前污染的土壤或地下水被清理并恢复到可接受的条件。在工业环境中,环境工程师利用科学寻找解决方案来限制污染排放和污水的排放量。有州和联邦雇员监测空气,水和土壤质量,以保护人类健康。美国劳工统计局预测2016年至2026年间环境科学岗位增长11%。2017年的薪资中位数为69,400美元

加拿大多伦多大学环境工程Assignment代写:什么是环境工程学

Environmental science is the study of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of nature. As such, it is a multidisciplinary science: it involves a number of disciplines like geology, hydrology, soil sciences, plant physiology, and ecology. Environmental scientists may have training in more than one discipline; for example, a geochemist has expertise in both geology and chemistry. Most often, the multidisciplinary nature of environmental scientists’ work comes from collaborations they foster with other scientists from complementary research fields. Coordinating cleanup efforts at an abandoned oil refinery labeled as a Superfund site, determining the extent of the pollution problem and putting together a restoration plan. Forecasting the effects of global climate change and sea level rise on a coastal bay system, and assisting with finding solutions to limit damages on coastal wetlands, shoreline property, and public infrastructure. Environmental scientists rarely just study natural systems, but instead usually work towards solving problems stemming from our interactions with the environment. Normally the basic approach taken by environmental scientists first involves using data to detect a problem and evaluate its extent. Solutions to the issue are then designed and implemented. Finally, monitoring is done to determine whether the problem was fixed. Some examples of the types of projects environmental scientists may be involved with include: Consulting with a construction team to help them with minimizing sediment pollution coming from the site of a future grocery store. To evaluate the condition of a field site, the health of an animal population, or the quality of a stream most scientific approaches require extensive data collection. That data then needs to be summarized with a suite of descriptive statistics, then used to verify if a particular hypothesis is supported or not. This type of hypothesis testing requires complex statistical tools. Trained statisticians are often part of large research teams to assist with complicated statistical models. Assisting the managers of a state government’s fleet of vehicles with taking steps to reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Designing a restoration plan to bring acreage of oak savanna in the proper ecological state to host the endangered Karner blue butterfly and its host plant, the blue lupine. Other types of models are often used by environmental scientists. For example, hydrological models help understand groundwater flow and the spread of spilled pollutants, and spatial models implemented in a geographical information system (GIS) will help track deforestation and habitat fragmentation in remote areas. Whether it is a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BS), a university degree in environmental science can lead to a wide range of professional roles. Classes typically include earth science and biology courses, statistics, and core courses teaching sampling and analytical techniques specific to the environmental field. Students generally complete outdoor sampling exercises as well as inside laboratory work. Elective courses are usually available to provide students with the appropriate context surrounding environmental issues, including politics, economics, social sciences, and history. Adequate university preparation for a career in environmental science can also take different paths. For example, a degree in chemistry, geology, or biology can provide a solid educational basis, followed by graduate studies in environmental science. Good grades in the basic sciences, some experience as an intern or summer technician, and positive letters of recommendation should allow motivated students to get into a Master’s program. Environmental science is practiced by people in a wide variety of sub-fields. Engineering firms employ environmental scientists to evaluate the condition of future project sites. Consulting companies can assist with remediation, a process where previously polluted soil or groundwater is cleaned up and restored to acceptable conditions. In industrial settings, environmental engineers use science to find solutions to limit the amount of polluting emissions and effluents. There are state and federal employees who monitor air, water, and soil quality to preserve human health. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts an 11% growth in environmental science positions between the years 2016 and 2026. The median salary was $69,400 in 2017

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