夸克是物理学中的基本粒子之一。它们共同形成强子,如质子和中子,它们是原子核的组成部分。通过强力对夸克及其相互作用的研究称为粒子物理学。夸克表现出约束,这意味着夸克不是独立观察的,而是总是与其他夸克结合。这使得无法直接测量属性(质量,旋转和奇偶校验);必须从由它们组成的粒子推断出这些特征。基于成对的弱阳性/阴性,弱同位素,有三代夸克。第一代夸克是上下夸克,第二代夸克是奇怪的,而魅力夸克,第三代夸克是顶夸克和下夸克。在普通物质的核心中可以看到上下夸克构成质子和中子。它们是最轻,最稳定的。较重的夸克是在高能碰撞中产生的,并迅速衰变为上下夸克。质子由两个向上的夸克和一个向下的夸克组成。中子由一个上夸克和两个下夸克组成。在夸克之间强烈的相互作用中,它们交换了胶子,胶子是带有一对颜色和反色电荷的无质量矢量规玻色子。交换胶子时,夸克的颜色会发生变化。当夸克靠近在一起时,这种颜色力最弱,当它们分开时变得更强。夸克的反粒子是反夸克。夸克和反夸克是唯一通过物理学的四种基本力量相互作用的两个基本粒子:引力,电磁以及强弱相互作用。这些测量表明非整数自旋(+1/2或-1/2),因此夸克是费米子并遵循泡利不相容原理。夸克受到颜色力的强烈约束,如果有足够的能量来分离它们,就会产生夸克 – 反夸克对并与任何自由夸克结合产生强子。因此,永远不会看到自由夸克。夸克有六种口味:上,下,奇怪,魅力,底部和顶部。夸克的味道决定了它的特性。
带电荷为+(2/3)e的夸克称为向上型夸克,带电荷为(1/3)e的夸克称为向下型。所有夸克都具有重子数(B = 1/3)和轻子数(L = 0)。风味决定了个别描述中描述的某些其他独特属性。

加拿大女王学院物理学Essay代写:夸克的定义

A quark is one of the fundamental particles in physics. They join to form hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, which are components of the nuclei of atoms. The study of quarks and the interactions between them through the strong force is called particle physics. A quark exhibits confinement, which means that the quarks are not observed independently but always in combination with other quarks. This makes determining the properties (mass, spin, and parity) impossible to measure directly; these traits must be inferred from the particles composed of them. There are three generations of quarks, based on pairs of weak positive/negative, weak isospin. The first generation quarks are up and down quarks, the second generation quarks are strange, and charm quarks, the third generation quarks are top and bottom quarks. The up and down quarks make up protons and neutrons, seen in the nucleus of ordinary matter. They are the lightest and most stable. The heavier quarks are produced in high-energy collisions and rapidly decay into up and down quarks. A proton is composed of two up quarks and a down quark. A neutron is composed of one up quark and two down quarks. In the strong interaction between quarks, they exchange gluons, which are massless vector gauge bosons that carry a pair of color and anticolor charges. When exchanging gluons, the color of the quarks change. This color force is weakest when the quarks are close together and becomes stronger as they move apart. The antiparticle of a quark is the antiquark. Quarks and antiquarks are the only two fundamental particles that interact through all four fundamental forces of physics: gravitation, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak interactions. These measurements indicate a non-integer spin (either +1/2 or -1/2), so quarks are fermions and follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Quarks are so strongly bound by the color force that if there is enough energy to separate them, a quark-antiquark pair is produced and binds with any free quark to produce a hadron. As a result, free quarks are never seen alone. There are six flavors of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top. The flavor of the quark determines its properties.
Quarks with a charge of +(2/3)e are called up-type quarks and those with a charge of -(1/3)e are called down-type. All quarks have a baryon number (B = 1/3) and a lepton number (L = 0). The flavor determines certain other unique properties, described in individual descriptions.

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