几十年来,学习过程一直是理论分析的热门课题。虽然其中一些理论从未离开抽象领域,但其中许多理论每天都在课堂上付诸实践。教师综合了多种理论,其中一些已有几十年历史,以提高学生的学习成果。以下教学理论代表了教育领域最受欢迎和最着名的一些理论。由霍华德加德纳开发的多元智能理论认为人类可以拥有八种不同类型的智力:音乐节奏,视觉空间,语言 – 语言,身体动觉,人际关系,人际关系和自然主义。这八种类型的情报代表了个人处理信息的各种方式。多元智能理论改变了学习和教育学的世界。如今,许多教师都使用围绕八种智能类型开发的课程。课程旨在包括符合每个学生学习风格的技巧。 Bloom的分类学由Benjamin Bloom于1956年开发,是学习目标的分层模型。该模型将个人教育任务(如比较概念和定义单词)组织成六个不同的教育类别:知识,理解,应用,分析,综合和评估。这六个类别按复杂程度排列。布卢姆的分类法为教育工作者提供了一种沟通学习的共同语言,并帮助教师为学生建立明确的学习目标。然而,一些评论家认为,分类学强加了学习的人为序列,忽略了一些关键的课堂概念,如行为管理。 Lev Vygotsky开发了许多重要的教学理论,但他最重要的两个课堂概念是近端发展区和脚手架。根据维果茨基的说法,近端发展区(ZPD)是学生之间和之后无法独立完成的概念上的差距。维果茨基建议,教师支持学生的最佳方式是确定近端发展区,并与他们合作完成超越它的任务。例如,教师可以选择一个具有挑战性的短篇小说,就在学生容易消化的内容之外,进行课堂阅读作业。然后,教师将在整个课程中为学生提供支持和鼓励,以提高他们的阅读理解能力。皮亚杰的建构主义理论指出,个人通过行动和经验构建意义,在当今的学校中发挥着重要作用。建构主义课堂是学生通过实践而不是被动地吸收知识来学习的课堂。建构主义在许多儿童早期教育计划中发挥作用,儿童在这些计划中度过了从事动手活动的日子。第二个理论,脚手架,是调整提供的支持水平的行为,以最好地满足每个孩子的能力。例如,在教授新的数学概念时,教师将首先让学生完成每个步骤以完成任务。当学生开始理解这个概念时,教师会逐渐减少支持,逐步转向支持轻推和提醒,直到学生完全靠自己完成任务。 Jean Piaget的图式理论通过学生现有知识提出新知识,学生将对新主题有更深入的了解。该理论邀请教师在开始上课之前考虑学生已经知道的内容。每当教师通过向学生询问他们已经了解某个特定概念的内容而开始上课时,这个理论就会出现在许多教室中。

澳大利亚昆士兰大学教育学Assignment代写:教学的重要理论

The learning process has been a popular subject for theoretical analysis for decades. While some of those theories never leave the abstract realm, many of them are put into practice in classrooms on a daily basis. Teachers synthesize multiple theories, some of them decades-old, in order to improve their students’ learning outcomes. The following theories of teaching represent some of the most popular and well-known in the field of education. The theory of multiple intelligences, developed by Howard Gardner, posits that humans can possess eight different types of intelligence: musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. These eight types of intelligence represent the varied ways individuals process information. The theory of multiple intelligence transformed the world of learning and pedagogy. Today, many teachers employ curriculums that have been developed around the eight types of intelligence. Lessons are designed to include techniques that align with each individual student’s learning style. Developed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, Bloom’s Taxonomy is a hierarchical model of learning objectives. The model organizes individual educational tasks, such as comparing concepts and defining words, into six distinct educational categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The six categories are organized in order of complexity. Bloom’s Taxonomy gives educators a common language to communicate about learning and helps teachers establish clear learning goals for students. However, some critics contend that the taxonomy imposes an artificial sequence on learning and overlooks some crucial classroom concepts, such as behavior management. Lev Vygotsky developed a number of important pedagogical theories, but two of his most important classroom concepts are the Zone of Proximal Development and scaffolding. According to Vygotsky, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the conceptual gap between what a student is and is not able to accomplish independently. Vygotsky suggested that the best way for teachers to support their students is by identifying the Zone of Proximal Development and working with them to accomplish tasks just beyond it. For example, a teacher might choose a challenging short story, just outside of what would be easily digestible for the students, for an in-class reading assignment. The teacher would then provide support and encouragement for the students to hone their reading comprehension skills throughout the lesson. Piaget’s theory of constructivism, which states that individuals construct meaning through action and experience, plays a major role in schools today. A constructivist classroom is one in which students learn by doing, rather than by passively absorbing knowledge. Constructivism plays out in many early childhood education programs, where children spend their days engaged in hands-on activities. The second theory, scaffolding, is the act of adjusting the level of support provided in order to best meet each child’s abilities. For example, when teaching a new math concept, a teacher would first walk the student through each step to complete the task. As the student begins to gain an understanding of the concept, the teacher would gradually reduce the support, moving away from step-by-step direction in favor of nudges and reminders until the student could complete the task entirely on her own. Jean Piaget’s schema theory suggests new knowledge with students’ existing knowledge, the students will gain a deeper understanding of the new topic. This theory invites teachers to consider what their students already know before starting a lesson. This theory plays out in many classrooms every day when teachers begin lessons by asking their students what they already know about a particular concept.

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