客人在临时承诺期满后必须返回家园。从技术上讲,成千上万的美国非移民签证持有者是客工。2011年,政府向临时农业工人发放了55,384份H-2A签证,帮助美国农民应对当年的季节性需求。另有129000份H-1B签证发给工程,数学,建筑,医学和健康等“专业职业”的工人。政府还向外国工人提供最多66000个H2B签证,用于季节性非农业工作。也许最具争议的美国客工倡议是从1942年年到1964年年的短工计划。从西班牙语中称之为“强力臂”短工计划将数百万墨西哥工人带入该国,以弥补劳动力短缺的问题。第二次世界大战期间的美国。该计划运行不良,监管不力。工人经常被剥削并被迫忍受可耻的条件。许多人只是放弃了这项计划,迁移到城市,成为第一波战后非法移民的一部分。客工计划的批评者认为,如果没有广泛的工人滥用,实际上是不可能的。他们为,这些方案本身就是剥削和创造卑微的奴役工人,相当于使奴隶制合法化。一般来说,客工计划不适用于高技能工人或具有高级大学学位的人.Braceros的滥用为这一时期Woody Guthrie和Phil Ochs。墨西哥裔美国劳工领袖和民权活动家塞萨尔查韦斯开始了他的历史性改革运动,以应对布拉塞罗斯遭受的一些民间艺术家和抗议歌手提供了灵感,包括虐待。但是,尽管存在过去的问题,但客工的扩大使用是国会在过去十年的大部分时间里考虑的全面移民改革立法的一个关键方面。其目的是为美国企业提供稳定,可靠的临时劳动力,以换取更严格的边境管制,以阻止非法移民。共和党全国委员会2012年平台呼吁创建客工计划,以满足美国企业的需求。乔治·W·布什总统在2004年年也提出了同样的建议。由于过去的滥用行为,民主党一直不愿意支持这些计划,但是当面对美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)在第二任期内通过全面改革法案的强烈愿望时,他们的抵抗力逐渐减弱。唐纳德特朗普总统说他想限制外国工人。国家客工联盟(NGA)是一家新奥尔良的客工工作者会员组织。其目标是在全国范围内组织工人并防止剥削。据NGA称,该组织寻求“与当地工人合作 – 就业和失业 – 加强美国的种族和经济正义社会运动”。

澳大利亚格里菲斯大学社会学Assignment代写:客工计划

Guests must return to their home after the temporary commitment period has expired. Technically, thousands of US non-immigrant visa holders are guest workers. In 2011, the government issued 55,384 H-2A visas to temporary agricultural workers to help American farmers cope with the seasonal needs of the year. Another 129000 H-1B visas were issued to workers in engineering, mathematics, architecture, medicine and health. The government also provides foreign workers with up to 66,000 H2B visas for seasonal non-agricultural work. Perhaps the most controversial American guest worker initiative is a short-term plan from 1942 to 1964. The “powerful arm” short-term program from Spanish has brought millions of Mexican workers into the country to compensate for the labor shortage. The United States during the Second World War. The plan is running poorly and the supervision is weak. Workers are often exploited and forced to endure shameful conditions. Many people just gave up the plan and moved to the city to become part of the first post-war illegal immigration. Critics of the guest worker program believe that it is virtually impossible without extensive worker abuse. For them, these programs are themselves exploiting and creating humble slave laborers, which is equivalent to legalizing slavery. In general, the guest worker program does not apply to highly skilled workers or those with advanced university degrees. The abuse of Braceros is Woody Guthrie and Phil Ochs during this period. Mexican-American labor leader and civil rights activist Cesar Chavez began his historic reform campaign to provide inspiration for some of the folk artists and protesters who have suffered in Brasseros, including abuse. However, despite past problems, the expanded use of guest workers is a key aspect of comprehensive immigration reform legislation that Congress has considered for most of the past decade. The aim is to provide US companies with a stable and reliable temporary workforce in exchange for stricter border controls to stop illegal immigration. The Republican National Committee’s 2012 platform called for the creation of a guest worker program to meet the needs of US businesses. President George W. Bush also made the same recommendations in 2004. The Democratic Party has been reluctant to support these plans because of past abuses, but their resistance has gradually weakened in the face of President Barack Obama’s strong desire to pass a comprehensive reform bill during his second term. President Donald Trump said he wanted to limit foreign workers. The National Union of Guest Workers (NGA) is a member organization of a guest worker in New Orleans. The goal is to organize workers across the country and prevent exploitation. According to NGA, the organization seeks to “cooperate with local workers – employment and unemployment – ​​to strengthen the American racial and economic justice social movement”.

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