国宪法规定国会的席位是根据美国人口普查来分配的(事实上,这是联邦政府每十年进行一次人口普查的最初原因)。各个州必须建立国会选区,然后选出众议院议员。1811年马萨诸塞州的情况是,民主党(托马斯·杰斐逊的政治追随者,而不是现存的后来的民主党)占据了州立法机构的多数席位,因此可以吸引所需的国会选区。民主党人想挫败他们的对手,联邦党人,按照约翰·亚当斯的传统,这个政党的力量。一个计划被设计来创建国会选区,以划分联邦主义者的任何集中。随着地图以不规则的方式绘制,一小撮的联邦主义者将居住在数量远远超过他们的地区。当然,绘制这些形状奇特的地区的计划极具争议。而热闹的新英格兰的报纸则展开了激烈的文字斗争,最终甚至还刊登了图片。多年来,人们一直争论到底是谁创造了“gerrymander”这个词。一本关于美国报纸历史的早期书指出,这个词来源于波士顿报纸编辑本杰明·拉塞尔和美国著名画家吉尔伯特·斯图尔特的一次会晤。1852年出版的《轶事、个人回忆录》和《与报纸文学有联系的文人传记》中,约瑟夫·T·白金汉讲述了以下故事:“1811年,当格里先生担任英联邦州长时,立法机关对选举的地区进行了新的划分。代表国会议员。这两个分支都拥有民主党多数席位。为了争取一位民主党代表,埃塞克斯郡荒谬而奇特的城镇安排组成了一个区。拉塞尔拿了一张县城地图,用特定的颜色标出选中的城镇。然后他把地图挂在编辑壁橱的墙上。一天,著名的画家吉尔伯特·斯图尔特看了看地图,说拉塞尔这样区分的城镇形成了一幅像某种怪兽的图画。他拿起一支铅笔,稍微摸了一下,又加了一些可以代表爪子的东西。“在那儿,”斯图尔特说,“那对蝾螈也行。”“拉塞尔正忙着拿笔,抬头看着那个丑陋的身影,大声喊道,‘蝾螈!叫它Gerrymander吧!”这个词成了一句谚语,而且多年来,在联邦主义者中广泛使用,作为对民主立法机构的谴责,民主立法机构以政治上的愚蠢行为而闻名。刻有“间谍”的雕刻,兜售国家,这在一定程度上激怒了民主党。一八一二年三月,新英格兰的报纸上开始出现“gerry mander”这个词,通常以连字符的形式呈现为“gerry-mander”。例如,《波士顿汇编》在1812年3月27日出版了一幅插图,把国会区描绘成一只长着爪子、牙齿,甚至还有神话中龙的翅膀的蜥蜴。一则标题称之为“怪物的新物种”。在下面的插图中,一篇社论说:“这个地区可能被展示成一个怪物。”它是道德和政治堕落的产物。它是为了掩盖埃塞克斯州大多数公民的真实声音,众所周知,埃塞克斯州拥有联邦多数。”

加拿大蒙特利尔大学法律Essay代写:国会的席位

The U.S. Constitution stipulates that congressional seats are allocated according to the U.S. census (in fact, this is the initial reason why the federal government conducts a census every ten years). States must establish congressional constituencies and elect members of the House of Representatives. In Massachusetts in 1811, the Democratic Party (Thomas Jefferson’s political followers, not the existing, later Democrats) occupied the majority of the state legislature, thus attracting the required congressional constituencies. Democrats want to defeat their opponent, the Federalists, the party’s strength, according to John Adams’tradition. A plan was designed to create congressional constituencies to divide any concentration of federalists. As maps are drawn irregularly, a handful of Federalists will live in areas far larger than theirs. Of course, plans to map these oddly shaped areas are highly controversial. The lively New England newspapers fought fiercely for words, and eventually even published pictures. For years, people have been debating who created the word “gerrymander”. An early book on the history of American newspapers points out that the word comes from a meeting between Benjamin Russell, editor of the Boston newspaper, and Gilbert Stewart, a famous American painter. In Anecdotes, Personal Memoirs and Biographies of Literature Associated with Newspaper Literature, published in 1852, Joseph T. Buckingham tells the following story: “In 1811, when Mr. Grey was governor of the Commonwealth, the legislature made a new division of the electoral area. Represent members of Congress. Both branches have a Democratic majority. To win a Democratic representative, the absurd and peculiar town arrangement of Essex County formed a district. Russell took a map of the county town and marked the selected town with a specific color. Then he hung the map on the wall of the editing closet. One day, the famous painter Gilbert Stewart looked at the map and said that Russell’s town formed a picture of some kind of monster. He picked up a pencil, touched it a little, and added something to represent his claws. “There,” said Stewart, “that’s the same for salamanders.” “Russell was busy with his pen, looking up at the ugly figure and shouting,’Salamanders! Call it Gerrymander!” The word has become a proverb and has been widely used by Federalists for many years. As a condemnation of democratic legislatures, democratic legislatures are known for their political stupidity. The sculpture of “spy” and the peddling of the country have angered the Democratic Party to a certain extent. In March 1812, the word “gerry mander” began to appear in New England newspapers, usually in the form of hyphens as “gerry-mander”. For example, on March 27, 1812, the Boston Repertory published an illustration depicting the Parliament as a lizard with claws, teeth and even the wings of the mythical dragon. One title is called “New Species of Monsters”. In the illustration below, an editorial says, “This area may be shown as a monster.” It is the product of moral and political degradation. It is designed to cover up the real voice of most citizens in Essex, which is known to have a federal majority.

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