每十年,在十年一次的人口普查之后,美国各州立法机关都会被告知,他们的州将派出多少代表到美国众议院。众议院的代表权以州人口为基础,共有435名代表,所以有些州可能获得代表,而有些州可能失去代表。每个州立法机关都有责任将州重新限制到适当数量的国会选区。由于一个政党通常控制着每个州的立法机构,所以为了最大利益,执政党应该重新限制他们的州,这样他们的党在众议院的席位就会比反对党多。对选举区的操纵被称为“操纵选举”。虽然非法,但选举权是修改国会选区以使执政党受益的过程。杰里曼德这个词源自埃尔布里奇·杰里(1744-1814),他是1810-1812年间马萨诸塞州的州长。1812年,格里州长签署了一项法案,将州重新划归法律,以压倒性地使他的党——民主党——共和党受益。反对党,联邦主义者们非常沮丧。一个国会选区的形状很奇怪,据说,一个联邦主义者说这个地区看起来像个蝾螈。“不是,”另一位联邦主义者说,“是食人魔。”《波士顿周报》把“食人魔”这个词带入了普通用法,随后刊登了一幅社论漫画,上面用怪物的头、胳膊和尾巴展示了这个地区,并把这个生物命名为食人魔。州长Gerry在1813岁时成为詹姆斯·麦迪逊副总统,直到一年后去世。Gerry是第二位在职的副总统。在名称的铸币之前发生的并持续了几十年的世袭行为在联邦法院受到了多次挑战,并被立法反对。在1842,重新分配法案要求国会区是连续的和紧凑的。1962年,最高法院裁定,各区必须遵循“一人一票”的原则,有公平的边界和适当的人口组合。最近,最高法院在1985年裁定,操纵地区边界以给一个政党带来利益是违宪的。有三种技术用于格雷曼区。所有这些都涉及建立一个地区,其目标是让某个政党的选民占一定比例。第一种方法叫做“超额投票”。它试图将反对党的投票权集中到少数几个地区,以稀释那些包含反对党绝大多数选民的地区之外的反对党的权力。 第二种方法被称为“浪费投票”。这种选举方法包括稀释反对党在许多地区的投票权,防止反对党在尽可能多的地区获得多数票。 最后,“层叠”方法包括通过将遥远的地区链接到特定的、执政党所在的地区来划定奇怪的边界以集中多数党的权力。

加拿大阿尔伯塔大学政治Essay代写:众议院选举

Every ten years, after the ten-year census, the legislatures of the American states are told how many delegates their states will send to the United States House of Representatives. Representation in the House of Representatives is based on the state population, with 435 delegates, so some states may be represented, while others may lose their representation. Each state legislature has a responsibility to re-limit the state to an appropriate number of congressional constituencies. Since a political party usually controls the legislature of each state, for the best of its interests, the ruling party should re-restrict its state so that its party will have more seats in the House of Representatives than the opposition party. The manipulation of electoral districts is called “election manipulation”. Although illegal, the right to vote is a process of modifying congressional constituencies to benefit the ruling party. The word Jeremy Mand derives from Elbridge Jerry (1744-1814), the governor of Massachusetts from 1810-1812. In 1812, Governor Grey signed a bill to reclassify the state to overwhelmingly benefit his party, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The opposition, the federalists, are very frustrated. The shape of a congressional constituency is strange. It is said that a federalist said the area looks like a salamander. “No,” said another federalist, “it’s the ogre.” Boston Weekly brought the word “ogre” into common usage, then published an editorial cartoon showing the area with the head, arms and tail of the monster, and named the creature ogre. Governor Gerry became Vice President James Madison at the age of 1813 and died a year later. Gerry is the second Vice President in office. Hereditary acts that occurred before the coinage of the name and lasted for decades were challenged many times in federal courts and opposed by legislation. In 1842, the redistribution bill required that parliamentary districts be continuous and compact. In 1962, the Supreme Court ruled that districts must follow the principle of “one person, one vote”, with fair borders and an appropriate population mix. Recently, the Supreme Court ruled in 1985 that it was unconstitutional to manipulate regional boundaries to benefit a political party. There are three technologies used in the Greyman area. All of this involves the establishment of a region whose goal is to give a certain proportion of voters to a political party. The first method is called “excess voting”. It tries to concentrate the opposition’s voting power in a few areas to dilute the opposition’s power outside those areas that contain the majority of the opposition’s voters. The second method is called “wasteful voting”. Such electoral methods include diluting the opposition’s voting rights in many areas and preventing the opposition from gaining a majority in as many areas as possible. Finally, the “cascade” approach involves centralizing the power of the majority by linking distant areas to specific, ruling party areas to delineate strange boundaries.

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