通过遗传交换以外的方式跨代和同伴传递信息的能力是人类物种的一个关键特征;甚至更具体的人类似乎是使用符号系统进行交流的能力。在该术语的人类学使用中,“文化”是指所有非遗传或表观遗传的信息交换实践。这包括所有行为和符号系统。尽管“文化”这个术语至少从早期的基督教时代开始(例如,我们知道,西塞罗使用过它),但它的人类学使用是在18世纪末和上个世纪初建立的。在此之前,“文化”通常指的是个人经历过的教育过程;换句话说,几个世纪以来,“文化”与教育哲学联系在一起。因此,我们可以说,现在我们大多使用这个术语的文化是最近的一项发明。在当代理论化中,人类学文化概念一直是文化相对主义最肥沃的地域之一。例如,虽然有些社会有明确的性别和种族分歧,但其他社会似乎没有表现出类似的形而上学。文化相对论者认为,没有任何一种文化比其他文化具有更真实的世界观;他们只是不同的观点。这种态度一直是过去几十年中一些最令人难忘的辩论的核心,并伴随着社会政治后果。文化理念,尤其是与全球化现象有关的文化理念,产生了多元文化主义的概念。在某种程度上,当代世界人口的很大一部分生活在不止一种文化中,无论是因为烹饪技术的交流,还是音乐知识或时尚创意等等。文化中最有趣的哲学方面之一是通过其方法对其标本进行过研究的方法。事实上,似乎为了研究一种文化,人们必须将自己从文化中移除,这在某种意义上说,这意味着研究文化的唯一方法就是不分享文化。因此,对文化的研究构成了人性方面最难的问题之一:你能在多大程度上真正理解自己?社会在多大程度上可以评估自己的做法?如果个人或团体的自我分析能力有限,谁有权获得更好的分析?为什么?有没有一种观点,最适合个人或社会的研究?

美国波士顿大学文化Essay代写:教育哲学

The ability to transmit information across generations and peers through methods other than genetic exchange is a key feature of human species; even more specific humans appear to be capable of communicating using the symbolic system. In the anthropological use of the term, “culture” refers to all non-genetic or epigenetic information exchange practices. This includes all behaviors and symbology. Although the term “culture” began at least in the early Christian era (for example, we know that Cicero used it), its anthropological use was established at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the last century. Prior to this, “culture” usually referred to the educational process that individuals experienced; in other words, “culture” was associated with educational philosophy for centuries. Therefore, we can say that the culture in which we mostly use this term is a recent invention. In contemporary theorization, the concept of anthropological culture has always been one of the most fertile areas of cultural relativism. For example, while some societies have clear gender and ethnic differences, other societies do not appear to exhibit similar metaphysics. Cultural relativists believe that no culture has a more authentic world view than other cultures; they are just different perspectives. This attitude has been at the heart of some of the most memorable debates of the past few decades, with social and political consequences. Cultural concepts, especially those related to the phenomenon of globalization, have produced the concept of multiculturalism. To a certain extent, a large part of the contemporary world’s population lives in more than one culture, whether it is because of the exchange of cooking techniques, music knowledge or fashion ideas. One of the most interesting philosophical aspects of culture is the way in which its specimens have been studied through its methods. In fact, it seems that in order to study a culture, people must remove themselves from culture. In a sense, this means that the only way to study culture is to not share culture. Therefore, the study of culture constitutes one of the most difficult issues in human nature: To what extent can you truly understand yourself? To what extent can society assess its own practices? If an individual or group has limited self-analysis capabilities, who is entitled to a better analysis? why? Is there a point of view that is most suitable for personal or social research?

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