交换系统或交易网络可以定义为消费者与生产者联系的任何方式。考古学中的区域交换研究描述了人们过去从生产者或来源获取,交换,购买或以其他方式获取原材料,商品,服务和想法的网络,以及将这些商品移到整个景观中。交换系统的目的可以满足基本和奢侈需求。考古学家通过对材料文化使用各种分析技术,以及通过识别特定类型工件的原材料采石场和制造技术来识别交换网络。自19世纪中期以来,交换系统一直是考古研究的焦点,当时化学分析最初用于识别来自中欧的金属制品的分布。一项先驱研究是考古学家安娜·谢泼德(Anna Shepard),他在20世纪30年代和40年代曾在陶器陶片中使用矿物内含物,为整个美国西南部广泛的贸易和交换网络提供证据。交换系统研究的基础受到20世纪40年代和50年代Karl Polyani的强烈影响。经济人类学家Polyani描述了三种类型的交易:交易,再分配和市场交换。 Polyani说,互惠和再分配是嵌入长期关系中的方法,意味着信任和信心:另一方面,市场是自我调节的,并且与生产者和消费者之间的信任关系脱离。

澳大利亚迪肯大学商科论文代写:交易网络

A switching system or trading network can be defined as any way consumers connect with producers. Regional exchange studies in archaeology describe networks in which people have previously acquired, exchanged, purchased or otherwise obtained raw materials, goods, services and ideas from producers or sources, and moved them to the entire landscape. The purpose of the exchange system is to meet basic and extravagant needs. Archaeologists identify exchange networks by using various analytical techniques for material culture and by identifying raw material quarries and manufacturing techniques for specific types of workpieces. Since the mid-19th century, exchange systems have been the focus of archaeological research, when chemical analysis was originally used to identify the distribution of metal products from Central Europe. A pioneering study was the archaeologist Anna Shepard, who used mineral inclusions in pottery pottery in the 1930s and 1940s to serve as a broad trade and exchange network throughout the southwestern United States. provide evidence. The basis of exchange system research was strongly influenced by Karl Polyani in the 1940s and 1950s. Economic anthropologist Polyani describes three types of transactions: trading, redistribution, and market exchange. Polyani said that reciprocity and redistribution are methods embedded in long-term relationships, meaning trust and confidence: on the other hand, markets are self-regulating and decoupled from the trust between producers and consumers.

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