通常被错误地称为“最高法院首席大法官”，美国首席大法官不仅主持最高法院，其中包括另外八名成员，称为副法官。作为国家最高级别的司法官员，首席大法官代表联邦政府的司法部门，并担任联邦法院的首席行政官。首席大法官以此身份领导美国司法会议，美国联邦法院的主要行政机构，并任命美国法院行政办公室主任。首席大法官的投票与八名副法官的投票具有同等重要性，但该角色确实需要同事大法官不履行的职责。因此，首席大法官传统上比同事大法官支付更多。美国宪法中没有明确规定首席大法官办公室。虽然“宪法”第一条第3款第6条提到“首席大法官”是主持参议院对总统弹劾的审判。建立最高法院本身的“宪法”第三条第1款将法院所有成员简称为“法官”。美国最高法院首席大法官和最高法院副法官的独特标题美国是根据1789年的“司法法案”设立的。1866年，由亚伯拉罕·林肯总统于1864年到法院审判的副法官Salmon P. Chase说服国会改变最高法院首席大法官的正式头衔美国现任美国首席大法官。 Chase认为，新头衔更好地承认了司法部门中职位的职责，与最高法院的审议没有直接关系。 1888年，美国首席大法官梅尔维尔·富勒成为第一个真正拥有现代头衔的人。自1789年以来，已有15位不同的总统在原始或现代首席大法官职位上共提名22项官方提名。
Often referred to as the “Chief Justice of the Supreme Court”, the US Chief Justice not only presides over the Supreme Court, but also includes eight other members, known as the Deputy Judge. As the highest-ranking judicial officer in the country, the Chief Justice represents the federal government’s judiciary and serves as the chief administrative officer of the federal court. In this capacity, the Chief Justice leads the US Judicial Conference, the main administrative body of the US Federal Court, and appoints the Director of the US Court Administrative Office. The vote of the Chief Justice is of equal importance to the vote of the eight Vice-Presidents, but the role does require the duties of the colleague’s judges. Therefore, the Chief Justice has traditionally paid more than his colleagues. The Chief Justice’s Office is not clearly defined in the US Constitution. Although Article 6 of Article 3 of the Constitution refers to “Chief Justice” is the trial of the President’s impeachment of the President. Article 3, paragraph 1, of the “Constitution” establishing the Supreme Court itself refers to all members of the court as “judges”. The unique title of the US Supreme Court Chief Justice and the Supreme Court Deputy Judge is based on the 1789 Judicial Act. In 1866, Deputy Principal Salmon P. Chase, who was tried by the court in 1864 by President Abraham Lincoln, persuaded Congress to change the official title of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Chase believes that the new title better recognizes the responsibilities of positions in the judiciary and is not directly related to the Supreme Court’s deliberations. In 1888, the US Chief Justice Melville Fuller became the first person to truly have a modern title. Since 1789, 15 different presidents have nominated 22 official nominations in the positions of the original or modern chief justice.