行为主义是对心理主义的反应,是心理学家在十九世纪后半叶使用的主观研究方法。在心灵主义中,通过类比和研究自己的思想和感受来研究心智 – 这个过程称为内省。行为主义者认为心理学家的观察过于主观,因为他们在个体研究者中存在显着差异,往往导致矛盾和不可复制的发现。行为主义主要有两种:方法行为主义,受约翰·B·沃森的作品影响,以及由心理学家BF斯金纳开创的激进行为主义。 1913年,心理学家约翰·B·沃森(John B. Watson)发表了一篇被认为是早期行为主义宣言的论文:“行为主义者对心理学的看法。”在本文中,沃森拒绝了心理学家的方法并详细阐述了他的心理学应该是什么的哲学:科学行为,他称之为“行为主义”。值得注意的是,尽管沃森经常被称为行为主义的“创始人”,但他绝不是第一个批评内省的人,也不是第一个支持客观学习方法的人。心理学。然而,在沃森的论文之后,行为主义逐渐成为现实。到20世纪20年代,许多知识分子,包括哲学家和后来的诺贝尔奖获得者伯特兰罗素等备受好评的人物,都认识到屈臣氏哲学的重要性。

加拿大马克马斯特大学论文代写:屈臣氏哲学

Behaviorism is a reaction to psychology and a subjective research method used by psychologists in the second half of the 19th century. In spiritualism, the mind is studied by analogy and by studying one’s own thoughts and feelings – a process called introspection. Behaviorists believe that psychologists’ observations are too subjective because they have significant differences among individual researchers, often leading to contradictions and unrepeatable discoveries. There are two main types of behaviorism: methodological behaviorism, influenced by the work of John B. Watson, and radicalism initiated by the psychologist BF Skinner. In 1913, psychologist John B. Watson published a paper that was considered an early manifestation of behaviorism: “The behaviorist’s view of psychology.” In this article, Watson refuses The psychologist’s method and a detailed account of what his psychology should be: scientific behavior, which he called “behavioralism.” It is worth noting that although Watson is often referred to as the “founder” of behaviorism, he is by no means the first person to criticize introspection, nor the first to support objective learning methods. psychology. However, after Watson’s thesis, behaviorism gradually became a reality. By the 1920s, many well-respected figures, including many philosophers and later Nobel laureates Bertrand Russell, recognized the importance of Watson’s philosophy.

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