The U.S. Constitution stipulates that congressional seats are allocated according to the U.S. census (in fact, this is the initial reason why the federal government conducts a census every ten years). States must establish congressional constituencies and elect members of the House of Representatives. In Massachusetts in 1811, the Democratic Party (Thomas Jefferson’s political followers, not the existing, later Democrats) occupied the majority of the state legislature, thus attracting the required congressional constituencies. Democrats want to defeat their opponent, the Federalists, the party’s strength, according to John Adams’tradition. A plan was designed to create congressional constituencies to divide any concentration of federalists. As maps are drawn irregularly, a handful of Federalists will live in areas far larger than theirs. Of course, plans to map these oddly shaped areas are highly controversial. The lively New England newspapers fought fiercely for words, and eventually even published pictures. For years, people have been debating who created the word “gerrymander”. An early book on the history of American newspapers points out that the word comes from a meeting between Benjamin Russell, editor of the Boston newspaper, and Gilbert Stewart, a famous American painter. In Anecdotes, Personal Memoirs and Biographies of Literature Associated with Newspaper Literature, published in 1852, Joseph T. Buckingham tells the following story: “In 1811, when Mr. Grey was governor of the Commonwealth, the legislature made a new division of the electoral area. Represent members of Congress. Both branches have a Democratic majority. To win a Democratic representative, the absurd and peculiar town arrangement of Essex County formed a district. Russell took a map of the county town and marked the selected town with a specific color. Then he hung the map on the wall of the editing closet. One day, the famous painter Gilbert Stewart looked at the map and said that Russell’s town formed a picture of some kind of monster. He picked up a pencil, touched it a little, and added something to represent his claws. “There,” said Stewart, “that’s the same for salamanders.” “Russell was busy with his pen, looking up at the ugly figure and shouting,’Salamanders! Call it Gerrymander!” The word has become a proverb and has been widely used by Federalists for many years. As a condemnation of democratic legislatures, democratic legislatures are known for their political stupidity. The sculpture of “spy” and the peddling of the country have angered the Democratic Party to a certain extent. In March 1812, the word “gerry mander” began to appear in New England newspapers, usually in the form of hyphens as “gerry-mander”. For example, on March 27, 1812, the Boston Repertory published an illustration depicting the Parliament as a lizard with claws, teeth and even the wings of the mythical dragon. One title is called “New Species of Monsters”. In the illustration below, an editorial says, “This area may be shown as a monster.” It is the product of moral and political degradation. It is designed to cover up the real voice of most citizens in Essex, which is known to have a federal majority.