文化是社会学中最重要的概念之一，因为社会学家认识到它在塑造社会关系，维护和挑战社会秩序，决定我们如何理解世界和我们在其中的位置，以及塑造我们的日常行为方面起着至关重要的作用。和社会经验。它由非物质和物质组成。简而言之，社会学家将文化的非物质方面定义为一群人共同分享的价值观和信仰，语言和交流以及实践。扩展这些类别，文化由我们的知识，常识，假设和期望组成。它也是管理社会的规则，规范，法律和道德;我们使用的词语以及我们如何说和写它们（社会学家称之为“话语”），以及我们用来表达意义，想法和概念的符号（例如交通标志和表情符号）。文化也是我们的工作，我们的行为和表现（想想戏剧和舞蹈）。它通知并包含在我们如何行走，坐下，携带我们的身体以及与他人互动中;我们的行为取决于地点，时间和“观众”;我们如何表达种族，阶级，性别和性行为等身份;以及我们参与的集体行为，例如宗教仪式，庆祝世俗假期和参加体育赛事。物质文化由人类制造和使用的东西组成。文化的这一方面包括各种各样的东西，从建筑物，技术小工具，服装到电影，音乐，文学和艺术等。社会学家认为文化的两个方面 – 物质和非物质 – 密切相关。物质文化，通常被称为文化产品，来自文化的非物质方面，并由其形成。换句话说，我们重视，相信和了解我们在日常生活中共同做的事情会影响我们所做的事情。但是，它不是物质文化和非物质文化之间的单向关系。虽然非材料影响材料，但材料也影响非材料方面。这就是文化产品倾向于遵循模式的原因。例如，音乐，电影，电视和艺术方面的内容会影响与他们互动的人的价值观，信仰和期望，然后反过来影响其他文化产品的创造。
Culture is one of the most important concepts within sociology because sociologists recognize that it plays a crucial role in shaping social relationships, maintaining and challenging social order, determining how we make sense of the world and our place in it, and in shaping our everyday actions and experiences in society. It is composed of both non-material and material things. In brief, sociologists define the non-material aspects of culture as the values and beliefs, language and communication, and practices that are shared in common by a group of people. Expanding on these categories, culture is made up of our knowledge, common sense, assumptions and expectations. It is also the rules, norms, laws, and morals that govern society; the words we use and the how we speak and write them (what sociologists call “discourse”), and the symbols we use to express meaning, ideas, and concepts (like traffic signs and emojis, for example). Culture is also what we do and how we behave and perform (think theater and dance). It informs and is encapsulated in how we walk, sit, carry our bodies, and interact with others; how we behave depending on place, time, and “audience”; how we express identities of race, class, and gender and sexuality, among others; and the collective practices we participate in like religious ceremonies, the celebration of secular holidays, and attending sporting events, for example. Material culture is composed of the things that humans make and use. This aspect of culture includes a wide variety of things, from buildings, technological gadgets, and clothing, to film, music, literature, and art, among others. Sociologists see the two sides of culture—the material and non-material—as intimately connected. Material culture, more commonly referred to as cultural products, emerge from and are shaped by the non-material aspects of culture. In other words, what we value, believe, and know, and what we do together in everyday life, influence the things that we make. But, it is not a one-way relationship between material and non-material culture. While the non-material influences the material, so too, the material influences non-material aspects. This is why cultural products tend to follow patterns. What has come before, in terms of music, film, television, and art, for example, influences the values, beliefs, and expectations of those who interact with them, which then, in turn, influence the creation of additional cultural products.