社会秩序是社会学中的一个基本概念，指社会的各个组成部分 – 社会结构和制度，社会关系，社会互动和行为，以及规范，信仰和价值等文化特征 – 共同维持的方式。现状。在社会学领域之外，人们经常使用“社会秩序”一词来指代在没有混乱和动荡的情况下存在的稳定和共识状态。然而，社会学家对这个术语有更复杂的理解。在该领域内，它指的是社会中许多相互关联的部分的组织。当个人同意共享社会契约时，社会秩序就存在，该共同社会契约规定必须遵守某些规则和法律，并保持某些标准，价值观和规范。社会秩序可以在国家社会，地理区域，机构和组织，社区，正式和非正式群体中，甚至在全球社会的范围内观察到。在所有这些中，社会秩序通常是等级性的;有些人比其他人拥有更多的权力，以执行维护社会秩序所必需的法律，规则和规范。与社会秩序相反的行为，行为，价值观和信仰通常被视为异常和/或危险，并且通过执行法律，规则，规范和禁忌而受到限制。社会秩序如何实现和维持的问题是产生社会学领域的问题。英国哲学家托马斯·霍布斯（Thomas Hobbes）在他的“利维坦”（Leviathan）一书中，为在社会科学中探索这个问题奠定了基础。霍布斯认识到，没有某种形式的社会契约，就没有社会，混乱和混乱就会统治。根据霍布斯的说法，现代国家的建立是为了提供社会秩序。人们同意授权国家执行法治，作为交换，他们放弃一些个人权力。这是霍布斯社会秩序理论基础的社会契约的本质。随着社会学成为一个既定的研究领域，早期思想家对社会秩序问题产生了浓厚的兴趣。像卡尔·马克思和ÉmileDurkheim这样的创始人将他们的注意力集中在他们一生之前和期间发生的重大转变，包括工业化，城市化以及宗教作为社会生活重要力量的衰落。然而，这两位理论家对于社会秩序如何实现和维持以及结果如何持有相反的观点。通过他对宗教在原始社会和传统社会中的作用的研究，法国社会学家埃米尔·迪尔凯姆开始相信社会秩序产生了一群人的共同信仰，价值观，规范和实践。他的观点将社会秩序的起源定位于日常生活的实践和互动中，以及与仪式和重要事件相关的社会秩序。换句话说，正是社会秩序理论将文化置于最前沿。涂尔干理论认为，正是通过一个群体，社区或社会所共有的文化，一种社会联系感 – 他所谓的团结 – 出现在人与人之间，并将他们联系在一起成为一个集体。涂尔干将一组人的信仰，价值观，态度和知识分享为“集体良心”。在原始社会和传统社会中，涂尔干观察到，分享这些东西足以创造一种将团队联系在一起的“机械团结”。在现代更大，更多样化和城市化的社会中，涂尔干观察到，认识到需要相互依赖，以实现将社会联系在一起的不同角色和功能。他称之为“有机团结”。涂尔干还指出，社会制度 – 如国家，媒体，教育和执法 – 在传统和现代社会中培养集体良知方面发挥着重要作用。根据涂尔干的说法，通过我们与这些机构以及我们周围的人的互动，我们参与维护规则，规范和行为，使社会能够顺利运作。换句话说，我们共同努力维护社会秩序。涂尔干的观点成为功能主义观点的基础，将社会视为共同演变以维持社会秩序的相互联系和相互依存的部分的总和。
Social order is a fundamental concept in sociology that refers to the way in which the various components of society—social structures and institutions, social relations, social interactions and behavior, and cultural features such as norms, beliefs, and values—work together to maintain the status quo. Outside the field of sociology, people often use the term “social order” to refer to a state of stability and consensus that exists in the absence of chaos and upheaval. Sociologists, however, have a more complex understanding of the term. Within the field, it refers to the organization of many interrelated parts of a society. Social order is present when individuals agree to a shared social contract that states that certain rules and laws must be abided and certain standards, values, and norms maintained. Social order can be observed within national societies, geographical regions, institutions and organizations, communities, formal and informal groups, and even at the scale of global society. Within all of these, social order is most often hierarchical in nature; some people hold more power than others in order to enforce the laws, rules, and norms necessary for the preservation of social order. Practices, behaviors, values, and beliefs that are counter to those of the social order are typically framed as deviant and/or dangerous and are curtailed through the enforcement of laws, rules, norms, and taboos. The question of how social order is achieved and maintained is the question that gave birth to the field of sociology. In his book Leviathan, English philosopher Thomas Hobbes laid the groundwork for the exploration of this question within the social sciences. Hobbes recognized that without some form of social contract, there could be no society, and chaos and disorder would reign. According to Hobbes, modern states were created in order to provide social order. People agree to empower the state to enforce the rule of law, and in exchange, they give up some individual power. This is the essence of the social contract that lies at the foundation of Hobbes’s theory of social order. As sociology became an established field of study, early thinkers became keenly interested in the question of social order. Founding figures like Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim focused their attention on the significant transitions that occurred before and during their lifetimes, including industrialization, urbanization, and the waning of religion as a significant force in social life. These two theorists, though, had polar opposite views on how social order is achieved and maintained, and to what ends. Through his study of the role of religion in primitive and traditional societies, French sociologist Émile Durkheim came to believe that social order arose out the shared beliefs, values, norms, and practices of a given group of people. His view locates the origins of social order in the practices and interactions of daily life as well as those associated with rituals and important events. In other words, it is a theory of social order that puts culture at the forefront. Durkheim theorized that it was through the culture shared by a group, community, or society that a sense of social connection—what he called solidarity—emerged between and among people and that worked to bind them together into a collective. Durkheim referred to a group’s shared collection of beliefs, values, attitudes, and knowledge as the “collective conscience.” In primitive and traditional societies Durkheim observed that sharing these things was enough to create a “mechanical solidarity” that bound the group together. In the larger, more diverse, and urbanized societies of modern times, Durkheim observed that it was the recognition of the need to rely on each other to fulfill different roles and functions that bound society together. He called this “organic solidarity.” Durkheim also observed that social institutions—such as the state, media, education, and law enforcement—play formative roles in fostering a collective conscience in both traditional and modern societies. According to Durkheim, it is through our interactions with these institutions and with the people around us that we participate in the maintenance of rules and norms and behavior that enable the smooth functioning of society. In other words, we work together to maintain social order. Durkheim’s view became the foundation for the functionalist perspective, which views society as the sum of interlocking and interdependent parts that evolve together to maintain social order.