日本在多元化管理的媒体报道与日本公司的现实之间存在相当大的差距。许多新闻文章认为，多样性管理终于在日本公司的雷达屏幕上，无论大小。他们包括与日本蓝筹跨国公司的着名首席执行官的高调访谈 – 他们公开和大声地谈到多元化管理的“战略”重要性。同样，政府高度重视组织多样性。安倍首相在其安倍经济学议程中将“妇女经济学”列为经济复苏的重要途径，并于2016年颁布了一项法律，以促进妇女在工作场所的参与和进步。法律现在要求日本公司披露其女性参与劳动力的状况和行动计划，包括女性经理和高管的比例以及数字目标。随着媒体的大肆宣传和政府的高度关注，越来越多的证据表明，包括主要跨国公司在内的日本公司的高管和经理人往往照常营业，最糟糕的是，愤世嫉俗。许多日本高管和高级管理人员仍倾向于将多元化管理视为人力资源（人力资源）管理问题或公关（公共关系）/企业社会责任（企业社会责任）问题。更重要的是，他们中的许多人认为管理多样性会产生成本，伴随着可疑的间接回报给他们的公司。他们的观点似乎与美国，加拿大和欧洲的同行形成鲜明对比，多元化管理已成为其竞争性增长战略中不可或缺的一部分。他们将组织多样性视为一个战略问题，为公司提供了通过投资组织和文化来获得长期回报来重新设计自己的机会（Cox和Blake，1991; Ivancevich和Gilbert，2000;爱尔兰，Hitt和Vaidyanath，2002; Richard，Barnett，Dwyer和Chadwick，2004; Bassett-Jones，2005; Brannen和Thomas，2010，等等）。简而言之，它们将多元化管理与创新和创造知识的组织过程联系起来，从而提高组织能力，改善企业绩效并增强竞争优势。为什么日本企业及其管理者在理解组织多样性方面形成鲜明对比？日本企业难以接受劳动力多元化是文化和规范因素的结果吗？是否有可能阻碍变革的法律法规？经济计算和其他功能原因在多大程度上可能有助于维持现状？日本企业及其管理者将组织多元化作为战略挑战和机遇解决的可能性是否很小？日本企业及其管理者可能需要哪些信息和知识，以及哪些流程和因素可以改变他们对问题的理解，并开始探索拥抱和管理组织多样性的战略机遇？组织拥抱组织多样性，承诺改变资源以及引入可能有效地将多样性转化为能力和绩效的具体过程，可能需要什么样的领导？公共政策在鼓励他们的劳工实践和管理决策方面可能起什么作用？
A considerable gap exists in Japan between the media coverage of diversity management on the one hand and the reality of the Japanese firms on the other. Many news articles portrait that diversity management is finally on the radar screen of Japanese companies, be they large or small. They include high-profile interviews with prominent chief executives of Japanese blue-chip MNEs – they spoke openly and loudly of the “strategic” importance of diversity management. Similarly, the government has a heightened attention on organizational diversity as the priority. Prime Minister Abe included “Womenomics” in his Abenomics agenda as an important path to economic recovery, and enacted a law in 2016 to promote women’s participation and advancement in the workplace. The law now mandates Japanese companies to disclose their status and action plan for female participation in the workforce including the ratio of female managers and executives and the numerical targets. With the hypes of the media and the heightened attention of the government, there is growing evidence that executives and managers of Japanese firms including major MNEs are at best business as usual, and at worst, cynical. Many Japanese executives and senior managers still tend to look at diversity management as an HR (human resource) management issue or a PR (public relations)/CSR (corporate social responsibility) matter. More importantly, many of them see that managing diversity incurs costs that accompany a dubious indirect return to their firms. Their view seems to show a contrast with that of their counterparts in the US, Canada, and Europe where diversity management has become an integral part of their competitive growth strategies. They see organizational diversity as a strategic issue that provides an opportunity for a firm to re-engineer themselves by investing in their organizations and cultures for long-term returns (Cox and Blake, 1991; Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000; Ireland, Hitt, and Vaidyanath, 2002; Richard, Barnett, Dwyer and Chadwick, 2004; Bassett-Jones, 2005; Brannen and Thomas, 2010, among others). In short, they link diversity management with an organizational process to innovate and to create knowledge, leading to enhancing organizational capability, improving corporate performance, and strengthening competitive advantage. Why do Japanese firms and their managers show a stark contrast in their understanding of organizational diversity? Is the difficulty of the Japanese firms embracing workforce diversity a consequence of cultural and normative factors? Are there laws and regulations that may hinder changes? To what extent, economic calculation and other functional reasons may contribute to the status quo? Will there be little prospect for Japanese firms and their managers to address organizational diversity as a strategic challenge and opportunity? What information and knowledge, and what processes and factors, may be necessary for Japanese firms and their managers to change their understanding of the issue and start exploring strategic opportunities in embracing and managing organizational diversity? What kinds of leadership may be necessary for an organization to embrace organizational diversity, commit their resources to change, and introduce concrete processes that may effectively translate diversity into capability and performance? What may be the role of public policy in encouraging their labor practices and managerial decisions?