货运是一种低利润的商业模式，要求船舶满载，以维持盈利的运营。当船舶处于设计阶段时，它几乎总是按照海军建筑的特定分类进行构建，并且是为特定的路线或目的而建造的。您将看到的其他术语是总吨位（GT）和自重吨位（DWT），虽然许多人认为这是衡量重量，但实际上它最好被描述为船体体积的衡量标准。当需要表示由船体排出的当量重量的水时，仅重量因素。在特定于海事的情况下，边界框的尺寸具有一些不同但仍然熟悉的名称。吃水是从水面到底部的测量。梁是在其最宽点处的船的宽度。长度是以船舶的总长度来衡量的，但在某些情况下，最大尺寸可能会考虑水线的长度，由于船体的死亡，它可能与整体长度（LOA）显着不同。最终测量是Air Draft，它是船上任何结构的水线以上的最大高度的度量。这些定义大多数与货船有关，但它们可适用于任何类型的船舶。军用和游轮也可归类于这些定义，但最常见的用途涉及货船。在承载最大货物量时通过特定瓶颈而建造的船舶被称为“-max”。例如，设计通过巴拿马运河的货轮称为巴拿马型。这意味着该船将装入与运河中最小锁的尺寸相匹配的最小边界框。边界框以三维方式测量，除了最大长度和宽度外，还包括水下和船上方的区域。 Aframax-这种分类几乎总是指一艘油轮，尽管它偶尔适用于其他大宗商品。这些船只服务于港口资源有限的石油产区，或者人造渠道通往装载原石油产品的码头。海岬型 – 这是命名方案不同但概念相同的实例之一。海岬型船的船只受苏伊士运河的深度限制，目前海拔62英尺或约19米。该地区的软地质使得该运河自首次建成以来可以疏浚到更深的深度，并且将来可能再次疏浚该运河，因此这种分类可能会改变其最大吃水限制。这个类的大小限制很少。主要限制是船的横梁，在这种情况下不能超过32.3米或106英尺。这种船的吨位约为120,000 DWT。海岬型船只是大型散货船和油轮，它们的名字来自绕过苏伊士运河所必须的路线。这条路线经过非洲的好望角或南美洲的Cape Horn，取决于船的最终目的地。
Cargo shipping is a low margin business model that requires vessels to be fully loaded in order to sustain profitable operations. When a ship is in the design phase it is almost always structured in a specific classification of naval architecture and built to serve a specific route or purpose. Other terms you will see are Gross Tonnage (GT) and Dead Weight Tonnage (DWT) and while many perceive this as a measure of weight it is actually described best as a measure of the volume of the vessel’s hull. Weight only factors in when an equivalent weight of water displaced by the hull needs to be expressed. In a maritime specific case, the dimensions of the bounding box have some different but still familiar names. Draft is the measurement from the surface of the water to the bottom. The beam is the width of a vessel at its’ widest point. Length is measured as the overall length of a ship but in some cases, maximum dimensions might consider the length at the waterline which can differ significantly from length overall (LOA) because of the Deadrise of the hull. The final measurement is Air Draft which is the measure of the maximum height above the waterline of any structure on the ship. Most of these definitions pertain to cargo vessels but they can be applied to any kind of ship. Military and cruise ships can also be classified under these definitions but the most common usage concerns cargo ships. Vessels that are built to pass through specific bottlenecks while carrying the maximum amount of cargo are termed “-max”. For example, a freighter designed to pass through the Panama Canal are called Panamax. This means that the ship will fit into a minimum bounding box that matches the dimensions of the smallest locks in the canal. A bounding box is measured in three dimensions and includes areas under water and above the ship in addition to maximum length and width. Aframax—This classification almost always refers to an oil tanker although it is occasionally applied to other bulk commodities. These vessels serve oil producing areas with limited port resources or where man-made canals lead to terminals that load raw petroleum products. Capesize—Here is one of the instances where the naming scheme is different but the concept is the same. A Capesize class of ship is limited by the depth of the Suez Canal which is currently 62 feet or about 19 meters. The soft geology of the region has allowed the canal to be dredged to a greater depth since it was first built and it possible the canal will be dredged again in the future so this classification may change its maximum draft limit. The size limitations in this class are few. The main restriction is the beam of a vessel which in this case cannot exceed 32.3 Meters or 106 feet. The tonnage of this type of vessel is approximately 120,000 DWT. Capesize vessels are large bulk carriers and tankers that get their name from the route they must take to bypass the Suez Canal. This route takes the past the Cape of Good Hope in Africa or Cape Horn off of South America depending on the final destination of the ship.